Simulation is critical when studying real operational behavior of increasingly complex Cyber-Physical Systems, forecasting future behavior, and experimenting with hypothetical scenarios. A critical aspect of simulation is the ability to evaluate large-scale systems within a reasonable time frame while modeling complex interactions between millions of components. However, modern simulations face limitations in provisioning this functionality for CPSs in terms of balancing simulation complexity with performance, resulting in substantial operational costs required for completing simulation execution. Moreover, users are required to have expertise in modeling and configuring simulations to infrastructure which is time consuming. In this paper we present SEED (Simulation EnvironmEnt Distributor), a novel approach for simulating large-scale CPSs across a loosely-coupled distributed system requiring minimal user configuration. This is achieved through automated simulation partitioning and instantiation while enforcing tight event messaging across the system. SEED operates efficiently within both small and large-scale OTS hardware, agnostic of cluster heterogeneity and OS running, and is capable of simulating the full system and network stack of a CPS. Our approach is validated through experiments conducted in a cluster to simulate CPS operation. Results demonstrate that SEED is capable of simulating CPSs containing 2,000,000 tasks across 2000 nodes with only 6.89x slow down relative to real time, and executes effectively across distributed infrastructure.
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