Adaptive speculation for efficient internetware application execution in clouds

Modern Cloud computing systems are massive in scale, featuring environments that can execute highly dynamic Internetware applications with huge numbers of interacting tasks. This has led to a substantial challenge − the straggler problem, whereby a small subset of slow tasks significantly impede parallel job completion. This problem results in longer service responses, degraded system performance, and late timing failures that can easily threaten Quality of Service (QoS) compliance. Speculative execution (or speculation) is the prominent method deployed in Clouds to tolerate stragglers by creating task replicas at runtime. The method detects stragglers by specifying a predefined threshold to calculate the difference between individual tasks and the average task progression within a job. However, such a static threshold debilitates speculation effectiveness as it fails to capture the intrinsic diversity of timing constraints in Internetware applications, as well as dynamic environmental factors such as resource utilization. By considering such characteristics, different levels of strictness for replica creation can be imposed to adaptively achieve specified levels of QoS for different applications. In this paper we present an algorithm to improve the execution efficiency of Internetware applications by dynamically calculating the straggler threshold, considering key parameters including job QoS timing constraints, task execution progress, and optimal system resource utilization. We implement this dynamic straggler threshold into the YARN architecture to evaluate it’s effectiveness against existing state-of-the-art solutions. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach is capable of reducing parallel job response times by up to 20% compared to the static threshold, as well as a higher speculation success rate, achieving up to 66.67% against 16.67% in comparison to the static method.